History of honokiol
Honokiol is a lignan isolated from the bark, seed cones, and leaves of the trees of various Magnolia species. Honokiol along with other active molecules in magnolia such as magnolol and obovatol and have been used in traditional chinese medicine for centuries.
Honokiol in nature
Structurally honokiol belongs to a class of neolignan biphenols. It is a hydrophobic polyphenol and it is readily dissolved in lipids and is a well documented antioxidant. Honokiol is extracted from various magnolia species including Magnolia grandiflora, which is native to the American South, Magnolia dealbata from Mexico and Magnolia biondii, Magnolia obovata, and Magnolia officinalis in Asia. Thankfully you do not need to eat tree bark to obtain honokiol and it is available extracted as a dietary supplement.
Potential Health Benefits
There have been a number of experiments focused on the antioxidant properties of honokiol. One of the most interesting studies was in 1994 which showed honokiol has the ability to prevent the peroxidation of lipids, a risk factor in cardiovascular disease. Perhaps more importantly is the ability of honokiol to inhibit inflammatory signals via the activation of the NF-kb protein complex. A 2013 study showed that honokiol was able to block the activation of NF-kb (a protein complex and regulator of the inflammatory response) in glial cells in the brain thus preventing inflammation making it a potential therapy for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
In 2007 researchers investigated the ability of honokiol to inhibit the immune response and reduce inflammation with a view to treating rheumatoid arthritis. The mouse study showed honokiol was able to inhibit a range of inflammatory signals including TNF-α and IL-6 thus reducing inflammation by mediating the immune response. Honokiol was studied in 2015 for its potential as a therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.
In this study the researchers showed that it was able to reduce inflammation via inhibition of the TNF-α (Tumor necrosis factor) cytokine, one of the signals responsible for inflammation. The researchers concluded that the anti-inflammatory properties of honokiol could hold potential for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
This article is only a very brief summary, and is not intended as an exhaustive guide and is based on the interpretation of research data, which is speculative by nature. This article is not a substitute for consulting your physician about which supplements may or may not be right for you.
- Lo, Y. C., Che-Ming, T., Chieh-Fu, C., Chien-Chih, C., & Chuang-Ye, H. (1994). Magnolol and honokiol isolated from Magnolia officinalis protect rat heart mitochondria against lipid peroxidation. Biochemical pharmacology, 47(3), 549-553.
- Zhang, P., Liu, X., Zhu, Y., Chen, S., Zhou, D., & Wang, Y. (2013). honokiol inhibits the inflammatory reaction during cerebral ischemia reperfusion by suppressing NF-κB activation and cytokine production of glial cells. Neuroscience letters, 534, 123-127.
- Munroe, M. E., Arbiser, J. L., & Bishop, G. A. (2007). Honokiol, a natural plant product, inhibits inflammatory signals and alleviates inflammatory arthritis. The Journal of Immunology, 179(2), 753-763.
- Wang, X. D., Wang, Y. L., & Gao, W. F. (2015). Honokiol possesses potential anti-inflammatory effects on rheumatoid arthritis and GM-CSF can be a target for its treatment. International journal of clinical and experimental pathology, 8(7), 7929.