The open access paper noted here reviews some of the known molecular targets for the development of exercise mimetics. An exercise mimetic is a therapy that in some way triggers a fraction of the beneficial cellular response to exercise. Exercise mimetic development lags behind calorie restriction mimetic development, and both are very slow, very expensive lines of work with – so far – little to show in terms of practical, useful therapies. It remains the case that it is far easier and better to actually exercise or practice calorie restriction. Even when the first truly effective therapies are available in the clinic, and it must be said there is no real sign that this will happen before the late 2020s, they are unlikely to be as beneficial as either exercise or calorie restriction. The cellular response to stress is very complex and includes many distinct mechanisms; efforts to produce mimetic drugs tend to focus down on only a fraction of those mechanisms.
Exercise benefits young and old organisms, including increased skeletal mass, improvement in the cardiovascular system, and metabolic regulation, as well as in brain