This is the second part of our ongoing series of articles that discuss the Hallmarks of Aging. Published in 2013, the paper divides aging into a number of distinct categories (“hallmarks”) of damage to explain how the aging process works and how it causes age-related diseases[1]. Today, we will be looking at one of the…

We are doing a series of articles that discuss the Hallmarks of Aging. Published in 2013, this paper is highly regarded in academia and is one of the most cited papers in biology, with an average of being cited once every two days. The paper divides aging into distinct categories (“hallmarks”) of damage to explain…

Autophagy means “eating of self” (from Ancient Greek “autó”= self;  and “phagein” = to divour)[1]. Although its name might sound harmful, autophagy appears to have longevity-promoting effects[2]. Here we will explain what autophagy is, how it works, its benefits, and how it plays a role in aging. What is Autophagy? Autophagy is the way cells…

The immune system as a whole can be broadly separated into two main branches: the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response. The innate immune response is performed by a system that is always present across the body, while the adaptive immune response appears only in response to an infection and is always specific…

Coming from a fusion of the words ‘protein’ (a molecule that a cell uses as a machine or scaffolding) and ‘stasis’ (meaning to keep the same), the term ‘proteostasis’ can essentially be simplified into “Each function reliant on proteins is running as it should. There are enough proteins to serve a function, and the concentrations…

This may seem to be obvious, but blood is made from many things. Blood plasma, for instance, is mostly made of water, carrying proteins and cells, along with various chemicals diluted within the plasma or bound to proteins. For instance, sodium bicarbonate – baking soda – is, in fact, a vital chemical that our bodies…

CRISPR (otherwise known as “Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat”) is a gene editing system, but it is not a human invention. It was originally part of the antiviral ‘immune system’ of a particular form of bacteria. Unlike our immune system, which destroys cells infected with viruses, CRISPR seeks to destroy the actual virus itself,…

In an attempt to foster a better understanding of how medicine and drug development work, we are going to take a look at clinical phases. The hope is to give you, the reader, a deeper appreciation for the various intricacies of the development process. Preclinical Studies In drug and therapy development, preclinical studies are a…

As your body ages, increasing amounts of your cells enter into a state of senescence. Senescent cells do not divide or support the tissue they are a part of but instead emit a range of potentially harmful chemical signals, which encourage other nearby cells to also enter the same senescent state. Their presence causes many problems:…

Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from Greek μακρος (makros) = large, φαγειν (phagein) = to eat) are a type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests cellular debris, foreign substances, microbes, cancer cells, and anything else that does not have the protein markers specific to healthy body cells on its surface, in a process called…

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