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On the 23rd of this month, Dr. David Sinclair did an Ask Me Anything over at the Futurology subreddit in support of the NAD+ Mouse Project on Lifespan.io. There were a range of interesting questions from the community about his work in aging research, particularly the role of NAD+ in aging.

Dr. David A. Sinclair is a Professor in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and a co-joint Professor in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology at the University of New South Wales. He is the co-Director of the Paul F. Glenn Laboratories for the Biological Mechanisms of Aging and a Senior Scholar of the Ellison Medical Foundation. He obtained his Ph.D. in Molecular Genetics at the University of New South Wales, Sydney in 1995. He worked as a postdoctoral researcher at M.I.T. with Dr. Leonard Guarente; there, he co-discovered a cause of aging for yeast as well as the role of Sir2 in epigenetic changes driven by genome instability.

More recently, he has been in the spotlight for his work with NAD+ precursors and their role in aging and has been helping to develop therapies that replace NAD+, which is lost with aging, in order to delay the diseases of old age. Below are a selection of questions and answers from the AMA, and we urge you to head over to Reddit Futurology to check out the other questions that people asked.

In a recent interview, you said something to the effect of “I used to say ‘ask me again in 5 years’… now I say ‘ask me again in 5 weeks’ indicating a very recent explosive trajectory of progress underway in unlocking the NAD+ mechanisms…

How soon do you believe that you/science will be able to prove robust rejuvenation to the public? I’ve always imagined it being “5-10 years away”, but due to all the activity in the longevity circles in recent months, I’m getting the feeling that this is coming much sooner than “5-10” years away, and may actually be happening this year or next. What are your thoughts on how soon this is going to happen?

Most drugs take a few years from initiating Phase I trials, depending on the disease they will treat. If it’s rare, it can go faster. There are some molecules including NAD boosters that are in Phase I. If all goes well, I expect the first success to be in the next 3 years and roll out increasingly frequently after that.

Molecules that may slow the effects of aging and even treat some diseases are already in clinical trials – rapalogs, NAD boosters, and senolytics. I remain optimistic that one or more of these approaches, or others, will be successful in the next few years. But drug development is a very hard, slow process, so it’s hard to say for sure. What I can say for sure is that hundreds of people around the world are working very hard to progress this science.

How is progress going with NAD+ therapy?

There are clinical trials ongoing with NAD boosters in humans as we speak. If they are safe, then they move next year into Phase II ‘efficacy studies’, then there’s Phase III. There are other companies working on cool tech also that are at about the same stage of development.

I know it’s frustrating how slow it is. Believe me, I wish it would happen faster too. But please know that I am working as hard as I possibly can to turn breakthroughs in my lab and in others’ labs around the world into medicines that are known to be safe and proven to work.

How soon will this be available to the public? And how much would it be?

Best estimates are 3 years if all goes well, longer if there’s a glitch. And glitches happen, especially on super important projects. Even on Reddit, they happen, as today’s AMA showed.

About the price, I will do all I can to make these drugs available to everyone who needs them. Globally.

I’m aware that global drug prices aren’t a simple matter, which is why I’m trying hard to maintain a say in how things turn out.

Here are the core values of Life Biosciences, which I co-authored:

Everyone is entitled to treatments and therapies that improve their quality of life.

Accessibility to the drugs and treatments we develop is key to progress – regardless of age, race, creed, nationality or economic standing.

Transparency and generosity are the cornerstones of our scientific and social responsibility.

Patient-centric outcomes will always come first.

Economic and environmental sustainability must be consistent with any technologies we develop.

I have read that an enzyme on the surface of immune system cells called CD38 does regulate cellular levels of NAD in multiple tissues and cells. Could CD38 inhibitors be a promising area of research to prevent the NAD+ decline? Are you working on such topics?

Yes, we are working on that and a new pathway that depletes NAD. They do seem promising.

Lots of talk about the advantages/disadvantages of the NAD+ precursors Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) vs. Nicotinamide Riboside (NR/Niagen). Anecdotally, I have seen more people say NMN is better, but that’s not scientific. Do you think one is more effective in humans than another, or are they totally interchangeable?

We are researching that. There are some different effects seen on mouse health and fitness. What’s needed is a head-to-head study. Also, I’m working with very talented people making novel and more potent NAD boosters that we hope will be effective in patients.

What do you think about George Church’s plan to reverse aging through epigenetics and the growing theory that the main forms of aging are epigenetically triggered and have little to do with telomere length? Thank you!

Love George. He’s my close colleague in my Department.

I thought that was our idea :) See Oberdoerffer et al. Cell, 2008:

‘We speculate that the RCM response may also cause permanent changes to the chromatin structure.. leading to stable transcriptional changes that accumulate over a lifetime (Oberdoerffer and Sinclair, 2007).’

…and even before that in the 1990s at MIT when studying yeast.

We have made good progress on cellular reprogramming in vivo. Discoveries are coming in rapidly. We have figured out a much safer approach than OSKM, in mice at least. Credit to Yuancheng Lu in our lab, and members of Zhigang He’s lab at Harvard, Benedikt Brommer, Chen Wang and Songlin Zhou. Will release more info when I can.

My understanding is that NAD+ facilitates DNA repair; I read there are different types of damages that can occur and different repair mechanisms. Is NAD+ involved in all of them? If not, which ones is your current project focusing on?

We’ve looked at DNA double strand break repair, which is the worst damage of all for cell survival and possibly aging. That said, the mechanism was in part due to PARP1 activation, and PARP1 facilitates many types of DNA repair (see Li et al., Science, 2017).

We are focused on DNA breaks, because we still think they are a major cause of epigenetic changes that drive aging (see Oberdoerffer and Sinclair, 2007).

Do you think that your ICE mice will be effective models for testing proteostasis diseases (such as Alzheimer’s), senescent cell-related disorders, or lamin-related (i.e. progeric) conditions?

In our ICE mice, in which we ‘induce changes to the epigenome’, we do see evidence of dementia and brain inflammation. We haven’t yet looked in detail for changes in proteostasis. Would be great if we saw it! Imagine doing experiments much faster! I’m also excited about the possibility that the ICE system could make the current models of age-related diseases more human-like by enhancing epigenetic changes beyond what a mouse would normally experience.

We would like to thank Dr. Sinclair for taking the time to do this AMA, and if you are interested in learning more about his current project, check out the NAD+ Mouse Project at Lifespan.io. Dr. Sinclair has recently announced he is matching the next $5000 donated to the project too so it’s the ideal time to support the project.

About the author

Steve Hill

Steve serves on the LEAF Board of Directors and is the Editor in Chief, coordinating the daily news articles and social media content of the organization. He is an active journalist in the aging research and biotechnology field and has to date written over 500 articles on the topic as well as attending various medical industry conferences. In 2019 he was listed in the top 100 journalists covering biomedicine and longevity research in the industry report – Top-100 Journalists covering advanced biomedicine and longevity created by the Aging Analytics Agency. His work has been featured in H+ magazine, Psychology Today, Singularity Weblog, Standpoint Magazine, and, Keep me Prime, and New Economy Magazine. Steve has a background in project management and administration which has helped him to build a united team for effective fundraising and content creation, while his additional knowledge of biology and statistical data analysis allows him to carefully assess and coordinate the scientific groups involved in the project. In 2015 he led the Major Mouse Testing Program (MMTP) for the International Longevity Alliance and in 2016 helped the team of the SENS Research Foundation to reach their goal for the OncoSENS campaign for cancer research.
  1. March 21, 2019

    What brand or company that currently sales NMN would you say is the most pure and highest quality?

    • May 5, 2019

      I would like to know this as well

    • August 6, 2019

      I’m confused is nad and nmn he same supplement?

      • mm
        August 7, 2019

        NMN is what we call an NAD precursor as it’s a compound that gets converted into NAD+. I did a two part article about NAD and the precursors here which might help.

  2. May 9, 2019

    my question pertains to the precursors vs. the true NMN. I’ve been taking Niagen and Resveratol together for a few months but what if I switched between NMN + Resveratol, to Niagen + Resveratol every other month?

    I’m sure brand recommendations aren’t something that is given out, but if so, is there a brand that seems to be the best?

  3. May 17, 2019

    Any reason NOT to take both NMN and Niagen together? Would a half-dose each be best or, since the “recommended” dose is less than used in trials, just stack them?

  4. July 18, 2019

    What are the best combinations to take. Resveratrol with NR and NMN daily? I am keen to get NAD levels up?

  5. July 21, 2019

    What is the recommended dose of NMN for young adults and people over 60 years old? Respectively: take one dose daily 100 MG and 250 MG? Or not?

    • October 15, 2019

      I’m taking 500mg (NMN) and I’m nearly 50. I understand Dr. Sinclair takes 1000mg a day.

  6. August 31, 2019

    What is the recommended dose for people between the ages of 50 and 60 years old, and would recommend powder or tablets

  7. October 25, 2019

    I note above that a reply about the advantages/disadvantages of the NAD+ precursors Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) vs. Nicotinamide Riboside (NR/Niagen) states that they are researching that but there are some different effects seen on mouse health and fitness.
    I have a research background and will be reading more of the papers to try and find out what those differences may be (if they are published).
    I have ordered my first NAD+ precursors and have decided to go approximately half and half NMN and NR at this stage. I am waiting for it to arrive. I started Berberine today (as I can’t get Metformin).

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