A new study published in Nature Metabolism finally reveals the answer to how NMN enters the cell in order to become NAD+ and that it does not need to convert into NR to do so. In the last few years, there has been considerable interest in restoring levels of the nicotinamide adenine dinclueotide (NAD+) coenzyme…

A new study takes a look at the relationship between metabolism, aging, and type 2 diabetes and in particular the mTORC1 protein complex, part of the mTOR pathway. The mTOR pathway The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a major part of metabolism and is one of four major pathways that control it; collectively,…

Today, we want to highlight a new study that used in silico analysis to look at the interaction between metformin and SIRT1 [1]. SIRT1 and metabolism Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog (SIRT1) is a member of the sirtuin protein family, and studies suggest that human sirtuins act as intracellular regulatory proteins. Sirtuin 1…

Today, we are pleased to announce that the results are in from a human trial that targets the aging immune system and that an immune system-boosting drug appears to be effective. Targeting TORC1 to boost the immune system As we age, the immune system becomes increasingly poor and unable to detect and fight infections. This…

Researchers from the University of Texas have discovered how NAD+ creation and consumption in cells is linked to glucose metabolism and their transformation from preadipocytes into adipocytes, or as most people know them, fat cells. INTRODUCTION Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an essential small molecule that is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes….

Welcome to part two of a two-part series exploring NAD+ biology; you can find part one here. There are already a myriad of excellent reviews on NAD+ biology in general [1-3], so, in this article, we will be mainly focusing on the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). NMN and synthesis of NAD+ NMN can be…

This is part one of a two-part article where we take a look at NAD+ biology, its history, how it relates to the biology of aging, and the potential for therapeutic interventions via the so-called NAD+ precursors. What is NAD+? Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. It is a…

In the January Journal Club, we discussed the new drug J147 which targets mitochondrial dysfunction to potentially treat Alzheimer’s and other age-related diseases. We have also discussed the topic in an article last week if you wish to read about the progress being made with this drug. Reference Goldberg, J., Currais, A., Prior, M., Fischer, W., Chiruta, C., Ratliff,…

Today, as part of our ongoing series covering the hallmarks of aging, we are taking a look at nutrient sensing and how its four pathways regulate metabolism and influence aging. The four associated key protein groups are IGF-1, mTOR, sirtuins, and AMPK. We call these proteins “nutrient sensing” because nutrient levels influence their activity. IGF-1…

We have been talking about a number of new studies in past Journal Clubs, so we thought it was time to get into some aging theory. We chose to cover one of the most cited and highly regarded damage theories of aging in this edition of the club. In this edition of Journal Club, we…

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