The mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell, producing ATP, a kind of universal energy used in cellular functions. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important part of the aging process. As cells age, the effectiveness of the respiratory chain diminishes, increasing electron leakage and reducing ATP generation [1]. As mitochondria become more dysfunctional with age, there…

One of the proposed mechanisms driving the aging process is an increase with age of so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS), also known as free radicals. These chemical species contain unpaired electrons in the outermost orbitals of some of their atoms, which makes them extremely reactive as they attempt to snatch electrons from other atoms to…

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